Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Slavery in Colonial America free essay sample

As the colonies of America developed, the slave trade also flourished. Unknown at the time, the colonist involvement in this trade would have monumental effects on America. First, slavery increased American participation in the triangular trade, but also stunted Southern industry. Second, slavery led to an ultimate feeling of white supremacy and plantations that defined life in the South. The slave trade had vast consequences on the economy and society of Colonial America.To begin with, the use of slaves greatly impacted the economy of the colonies. Southern colonies thrived from crops such as tobacco and rice that were physically demanding and tough to grow. However, African workers seemed to be able to handle the conditions and even had experience with the crops. This caused an increase in Southern production Of cash crops and ultimately led to a lack of industry. The triangular trade was also a worldwide phenomenon as a part of slavery. We will write a custom essay sample on Slavery in Colonial America or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As demand for slaves grew, Americans increased trade with the West Indies. This established more markets for colonial goods to be exported to as well as an increase in trading and merchants. The economic situation of the colonies resulted significantly from slavery. On the other hand, the society of Colonial America was also directly affected by slavery. At first, the status of Africans was not clear. By the eighteenth century, however, whites assumed blacks were to work for life, and they began passing slave codes to limit their rights.This allowed Europeans to define themselves as a superior race, not only to Africans, but also in issues involving Natives or other races of color. The organization of slave labor also resulted in the rise of plantations in the South. These plantations led to self- contained communities that often grew to include schools and chapels. This created a stratified society where the white plantation owners controlled the livelihood of slaves and even small farmers in their communities. For these seasons, slave labor shaped the social structure of the colonies. In conclusion, the consequences of slavery greatly impacted the society and economy of America. Slave labor increased the production of large scale crops and trade with other parts of the world. Whites claimed supremacy and came to rule over the plantations they created. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century, slavery was just a system of labor. However, it grew to be a way of life that shaped America for centuries to come.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Heteronormativity Kritik free essay sample

This chapter is about sex, but not the sex that people already have clarity about. Outer space as a human, political domain is organized around sex, but a sex that is tacitly located, and rarely spoken, in official discourse. The poli ­ tics of outer space exploration, militarization and commercialization as they are conceived of and practiced in the US, embody a distinction between public and private (and appropriate behaviours, meanings and identities therein) highly dependent upon heteronormative hierarchies of property and propriety. The central aim of this chapter is to show how US outer space discourse, an imperial discourse of technological, military and commercial superiority, configutes and prescribes success and successful behaviour in the politics of outer space in particularly gendered forms. US space discourse is, I argue, predicated on a heteronormative discourse of conquest that reproduces the dominance of heterosexual masculinity(ies), and which hierarchically order s the construction of other (subordinate) gender identities. We will write a custom essay sample on Heteronormativity Kritik or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Reading the politics of outer space as heteronormative suggests that the discourses through which space exists consist of institutions, structures of understanding, practical orientations and regulatory practices organized and privileged around heterosexuality. As a particularly dominant discursive arrangement of outer space politics, US space discourse (re)produces meaning through gendered assumptions of exploration, colonization, economic endeavour and military conquest that are deeply gendered whilst presented as universal and neutral. US space discourse, which dominates the contemporary global politics of outer space, is thus formed from and upon institutions, structures of understanding, and practical orientations that privilege and normalize heterosexualiry as universal. As such, the hegemonic discursive rationalizations of space exploration and conquest ,re)produce both heterosexuality as unmarked (that is, thoroughly normal ­ ized) and the heterosexual imperatives that constitute suitable space-able people, practices and behaviours. As the introduction to this volume highlights, the exploration and utilization of outer space can thus far be held up as a mirror of, rather than a challenge to, existent, terrestrially-bound, political patterns, behaviours and impulses. The new possibilities for human progress that the application and development of space technologies dares us to make are grounded only in the strategy ­ obsessed (be it commercially, militarily or otherwise) realities of contemporary global politics. Outer space is a conceptual, political and material space, a place for collisions and collusions (literally and metaphorically) between objects, ideas, identities and discourses. Outer space, like international relations, is a global space always socially and locally embedded. There is nothing out there about outer space. It exists because of us, not in spite of us, and it is this that means that it only makes sense in social terms, that is, in relation to our own constructions of identity and social location. In this chapter, outer space is the problematic to which I apply a gender analysis; an arena wherein past, current and future policy-making is embedded in relation to certain performances of power and reconfigurations of identity that are always, and not incidentally, gendered. Effective and appropriate behaviour in the politics of ourer space is configured and prescribed in particularly gendered forms, with heteronormative gender regulations endowing outer spaces hierarchies of technologically superior, conquesting performance with theif everyday power. It is through gender that US techno-strategic and astro-political discourse has been able to (re)produce outer space as a heterosexualized, masculinized realm. Heteronormativity K 1NC 2. The drive to colonize space precludes queer identities and concretizes sexual difference. This reinforces heterosexism and turns women into commodities. Casper and Moore 95 (Monica J. , Ph. D in sociology from the University of California, San Francisco, feminist scholar and researcher on reproductive justice. Lisa Jean, Ph. D in sociology from the University

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Circulatory System essays

Circulatory System essays Circulatory system, cardiac location and structures, the heart is the driving force of the circulatory system, contracting about 70 times/minute to pump an adequate volume of blood with sufficient pressure to perfuse all body organs. The muscular organ weights from 300 to 400g, its located within the mediastinum of the thoratic cavity. Living things must be capable of transporting nutrients, wastes and gases to and from cells. Single-celled organisms use their cell surface as a point of exchange with outside environment. Multicellular organisms have developed transport and circulatory systems to deliver oxygen and food to cells and remove carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Sponges are the simplest animals, yet even they have a transport system. Seawater is the medium of transport and is propelled in and out of the songe by ciliary action. Simple animals, such as the hydra and planaria, lack specialized organs such as hearts and blood vessels, instead using their skin as exchange po ints for material. This, however, limits the size an animal can attain. To become larger, they need specialized organs and organs system. The heart has three tissue layers: the epicardium (outer layer), the myocardium (middle layer),and the endocardium (inner layer). The epicardium is the thin inner layer of the pericardium. The myocardium, thickest of the three tissue layers, is composed of muscle fibers that contract, creating the pumping effect of cardiac activity. The endcardium, a smooth, membranous layer that lines all cardiac chambers and value leaflets, is continuous with the intima, or lining, of the aorta and arteries. The hearts four chambers-the right and left atria ventricles-are separated by the interatrial and interventricular septa.the atria are thin walled, low-pressure chambers that serve primarily as reservoirs for blood flow into the ventricles. The ventricles are formed by muscle fibers that contract to eject blood to the pu...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Apple Company Business Environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Apple Company Business Environment - Essay Example It is expected that the continuance of this trend will encourage more consumer spending and pave the way for more investment by Apple in developing new products. However, weak economic conditions have continued to exist especially within the education sector in the United States. Many states are experiencing huge deficits in budget, which may hamper Apple’s sales initiatives within the educational sector. Most of Apple’s products and components are manufactured in factories across China through partnerships with suppliers and electronic parts manufacturers like Foxconn and Inventec (Housden, 2008). The fixed exchange rate regime adopted by the Chinese government is adversely affecting any effort by Apple to cut production costs, adding to the problems faced from tariffs and anti-dumping penalties (International trade regulations). Social The use of computers, laptops, Smartphones and music players is growing worldwide, especially in the emerging economies. This presents a good opportunity for Apple to widen its market reach especially within these new and relatively unexplored markets. Customers are more adept at using these electronic devices and the use of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter has only enhanced the importance of computers and Smartphones for daily use (Aasend, 2001). Further, today’s generation places high value on education wherein strategies like offering discounts on products to students are helping Apple capture consumers from an early age and ensure their long-term commitment and preference for its products. Traditionally, Apple has always competed with Microsoft especially within the Operating Systems (OS) segment.... This paper approves that the preceding sections discuss the far, near and internal business environment of Apple Inc. Apple currently faces several issues that it must focus upon in order to ensure sustainable growth in the future. The firm must engage in its current strategy of licensing and strive to improve the economies of scope between personal computers and electronic media. Thus, the need for Apple over the coming years is to evolve into a learning organization. Besides licensing and partnerships, Apple can also consider the possibilities of joint ventures with other companies, which will allow it to develop various additional competencies. This report makes a conclusion that Apple’s primary strategy should be directed towards developing media-centric technologies and products. Nevertheless, the company should also work towards improving its computing products. In fact, Computer sales accounted for over 40% of Apple’s revenues in 2008. Apple continues to rely on the leadership and vision of its CEO, Steve Jobs. Mr. Jobs holds a considerable equity stake in the company and is one of the main reasons behind Apple’s resurgence from virtual oblivion. The reaction from the markets and consumers if he were to ever step down is rather uncertain. Therefore, the dependence on Mr. Jobs should not be a limiting factor for Apple and the firm must devise ways to operate as an organization. Such an initiative will allow Apple to strengthen its position and act through collective decision-making.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Report (addressing the key issues surrounding financial and marketing Essay

Report (addressing the key issues surrounding financial and marketing applications of management information system - Essay Example MIS systems enable organisations to transform unmanageable volumes of data into formats that supports faster decision making. Faster decision making empowers organisations with the capability to survive in today’s rapidly changing business environment. MIS systems also enables organisations run simulations based on raw data which allows them to answer ‘what if’ questions regarding their strategy. Broadly, MIS  increase information utility across an  organization. Information availability is essential  to the decision making process at all levels of the organisation: functional, operational and strategic. In this discussion we shall look at the key issues surrounding application of MIS in two major business processes, namely: marketing and finance. Marketing management information systems (MkIS) are computerized systems designed to support the availability of information required to ensure effective marketing activities of an organization. These needs of the organization can only be met by the marketing information systems if it provides the organization with operational, analytical and collaborative functionality (Harmon 2003). The operational needs aspect is addressed by the customer management applications that focus on daily customer transactions and customer service. The analytical function is done by MkIS decision support systems that enable data analysis on factors affecting the market conditions such as customers, competition and technology. The collaborative MkIS applications make it easier for managers to share information and work together virtually. Also, it assists in encouraging organizations to collaborate with their customers on product designs and preferences. Managing marketing information by means of IT has become an indispensible element of effective marketing. MkIS offer new approaches for making better the internal efficiencies of a firm especially with

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem - Essay Example As Lindeman (1942) stated, â€Å"Only 10% of the total chemical energy is retained at each trophic level.† This is known as the ten per cent law. The second law of thermodynamics says that at each progressive trophic level in the food chain, there is a gradual decrease in the available energy. The pyramid of energy is always upright or straight because out of the total amount of energy transferred from the lower trophic level, as much as 80-90% is lost in the form of heat. The net primary productivity (the resultant plant biomass) is the difference of the gross primary productivity (total plant biomass) and the amount used for plant respiration. Therefore, it is only the net photosynthesis that is presented to the next trophic level of the food chain or the herbivores. The carnivores receive the gross secondary productivity from the herbivores. Lakes, ponds, rivers and steams are representative of fresh water biomes. There are the shallow or eutrophic lakes and deep or olitrophic lakes. On the basis of the penetration of light, a deep lake has three zones. The transition zone or thermocline, the basal layer or the hypolimnion and the upper layer that is warmer in summer and cooler in winter called the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Belt Drive Laboratory Exercise

Belt Drive Laboratory Exercise An investigation into the relationship between tensions in a slipping pulley and comparison of experimental and theoretical results 1. Summary The transmission of power across machines and systems in industry is vitally important and belt drives can provide this in a cheap but efficient form. In this experiment, a flat belt was attached around a pulley at four separate contact angles and the tensions both before and after the pulley were recorded as the mass was changed to investigate the belt tension ratio and efficiency of the pulley, and how this compared to theoretical results. The experimental and predicted results were found to be very similar, confirming the expectation that an increase in contact angle would cause an increase in belt tension ratio. Also, a peak efficiency of 67.95% was measured which was significantly lower than the average modern day efficiency of 95%.   2. List of Symbols Symbol Meaning  µ coefficient of friction between belt and pulley ÃŽÂ ± half vee belt angle ÃŽÂ ² angle of contact between belt and pulley T ­1 tension after pulley T2 tension before pulley mm millimetres N newtons V volts A amps g grams à Ã¢â‚¬ ° rotational speed rpm revs per minute ÃŽÂ · efficiency POUT output power PIN input power T torque Nm newton metres 3. Introduction Belt drives are a cost effective, easy to use devices designed for power transmission between machines or shafts. The origins of traction devices can be traced back as far as the Babylonians and Assyrians with flat belts, made of leather, becoming the main source of power transmission in factories during the industrial revolution. Although flat belts are still used today, the introduction of vee belts by John Gates in 1917 revolutionised short distance power transmission, being able to generate more power than a flat belt for a pulley of certain diameter. Modern belt drives are able to transmit power at an efficiency of 90-98%, averaging 95% [1]. Vee belts provided the opportunity for continuously variable transmission with their ability to work on pulleys of variable diameters, a useful advantage over other forms of transmission. However, the main disadvantage is the slip between belt and pulley which can limit the efficiency of the drive; the factors contributing to this are the belt profile, the friction and the amount of torque. This report investigates the relationship between the tensions in a stationary flat belt pulley and subsequently the torque and efficiency, comparing the experimental results with expected values calculated using the theory outlined below. 4. Theory Given the coefficient of friction  µ, vee belt angle 2ÃŽÂ ± and angle of contact ÃŽÂ ² (rad), the relationship between higher tension and lower tension in a slipping pulley, known as the belt tension ratio, is given by the following equation: [2] (equation 1) Given for a flat belt ÃŽÂ ± = 90 ° and knowing sin (90 °) = 1, this equation can be rewritten: (equation 2) It is this theoretical equation which the experimental results will be compared against in order to analyse the relationship between the belt tension ratio and coefficient of friction. 5. Method 5.1 Apparatus Belt drive system set up as shown above in figure 1, with the central pulley of radius 50mm and a load cell measuring with an uncertainty of  ­Ã‚ ­Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±0.005N. DC electric motor to provide initial rotational movement of the central pulley, measuring voltage (V) with an uncertainty of  ±0.05V and current (I) with an uncertainty of  ±0.005A. Masses, 100g each, to vary the load applied at the free end of the string Hand held optical tachometer capable of measuring rotational speed (à Ã¢â‚¬ °) of the pulley with an accuracy of  ±0.5rpm. 5.2 Procedure The free end of the string was placed accordingly to ensure the angle of contact, ÃŽÂ ², between the belt and pulley was à Ã¢â€š ¬/2. The motor supply voltage was set to 10V and it was made sure that the pulley was rotating in the correct direction by checking T2 > T1. The spring balance was zeroed before the minimum load, 100g, was placed on the free end of the string and a measurement for T1 recorded off the spring balance. 100g masses were then added individually until a maximum mass was applied and the value on the spring balance after the addition of each mass was recorded. These masses were then removed, the angle of contact changed, and the experiment then repeated for angles of à Ã¢â€š ¬, 3à Ã¢â€š ¬/2 and 2à Ã¢â€š ¬. The maximum mass was achieved when the motor was close to stalling but the voltage value still read 10V. When performing the experiment at the 3à Ã¢â€š ¬/2 angle of contact, values for current and pulley rotational speed were also measured after the addition of each 100g mass. The current (I) was measured by the digital multimeter while the rotational speed of the pulley (à Ã¢â‚¬ °) was measured using the hand held optical tachometer. 6. Results The tension after the pulley (T1) and the mass added to the free end of the string were recorded and collected in a table, which can be found in Appendix A. The values for the mass were converted from kg to N to give the corresponding tensions (T2). A graph of T2 against T1 (figure 2) was then drawn for all four angles of contact ÃŽÂ ². This experimental value was calculated from figure 3 to be 0.3269. Using this value and equation 1 for all four angles, a theoretical plot of the belt tension ratio was able to be produced and compared with the experimental results achieved at the four points, shown through figure 4. 7. Discussion It was expected that as the angle of contact increased, the value of T1 would decrease and therefore the value of the belt tension ratio would increase. It can clearly be seen from the experimental data points produced in figure 4 that the results from this experiment were as expected. Also from figure 4, an analysis of the experimental data points and the theoretical line of best fit shows a clear correlation between the two calculations, confirming the theory discussed during section 3 of the report. The slight differences found between these two forms of data, particularly at ÃŽÂ ²=3à Ã¢â€š ¬/2 where the largest error is found, can be accredited to systematic errors due to the measurements from the load cell. Observing figure 6, the motor efficiency shows a generally increasing trend though the curve begins to flatten out as T2 reaches 9.810N. This shows the relationship between torque and efficiency not to be linear but instead parabolic, demonstrating the idea of a peak efficiency at each contact angle. By differentiating the equation of the line of best fit we can calculate that the maximum efficiency is achieved at a torque of 1.627 Nm with this efficiency being 67.95%. This efficiency is significantly smaller than the modern day average of 95% stated in the introduction; this difference in values can be attributed to various factors affecting the calculations. Firstly, it was assumed that the motor driving the pulley was 100% efficient; in reality this would not be the case as there would be energy lost internally through friction, cooling systems and core losses. Secondly, this experiment was conducted using a constantly slipping flat belt as opposed to a more commonly used form of transmission such as a vee belt, where higher efficiencies would be anticipated. 8. Conclusion To conclude, the experiment outlined in this report was useful in demonstrating the relationship between tensions in a slipping pulley, successfully validating the theory from section 3 that belt tension ratio is related to angle of contact; as ÃŽÂ ² tends towards 2à Ã¢â€š ¬, the belt tension ratio tends towards a maximum due to an increased area of contact and consequently larger friction. In the experiment, a maximum efficiency of 67.95% was calculated at a torque of 1.627 Nm. The graph of efficiency against torque analysed in section 5 demonstrates a need to find the optimum torque of a system in order to achieve maximum efficiency from it. The findings from this experiment are statistically insignificant as the nature of the pulley does not correspond to common industry types. However, the experiment was useful in showing the basic relationships between angles of contact, belt tension ratio and efficiency found in belt drives and the effect slipping can have on the output of these systems. Appendix A Raw Data à Ã¢â€š ¬/2 à Ã¢â€š ¬ 3à Ã¢â€š ¬/2 2à Ã¢â€š ¬ Weight (kg) T2 (N) T1 (N) Current (A) Speed (revs/min) T1(N) T1(N) T1 (N) 1.0 9.810 5.80 3.8 1218 3.40 1.70 0.9 8.829 5.20 3.5 1239 3.05 1.50 1.15 0.8 7.848 4.60 3.2 1256 2.70 1.35 1.00 0.7 6.867 4.00 2.9 1280 2.40 1.15 0.90 0.6 5.886 3.45 2.6 1308 2.05 0.95 0.75 0.5 4.905 2.85 2.3 1340 1.70 0.80 0.60 0.4 3.924 2.25 2.0 1370 1.35 0.60 0.45 0.3 2.943 1.65 1.7 1399 1.00 0.40 0.35 0.2 1.962 1.15 1.3 1429 0.65 0.25 0.25 0.1 0.981 0.5 1.0 1470 0.30 0.10 0.10 [1] Carlisle Power Transmission products, Inc., Energy loss and belt efficiency, [Online]. Available: http://www.clark-transmission.com/images/pdf/carlisle/energy_loss_and_belt_efficiency.pdf. [Accessed 9 February 2016]. [2] J. Darling, ME 10010 Solid mechanics 2 Belt Drive Labratory Exercise, University of Bath, 2016. [3] University of Geulph, Department of Physics, What is torque?, [Online]. Available: https://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/torque/Q.torque.intro.html. [Accessed 16 February 2016]. [1] PIX Transmissions Limited, Belts Brief history and types, [Online]. Available: http://www.pixtrans.com/blog/belts%E2%80%93brief-history-and-types.html. [Accessed 9 February 2016]. [2] Groschopp, Efficiency and losses in electric motors, 24 March 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.groschopp.com/efficiency-and-losses-in-electric-motors/. [Accessed 10 February 2016]. [3] Habatec, Introduction to the power transmission flat belt drive, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.habatec.net/HNet/HabaTEC.nsf/vwWebContent/FF5800BDAD1854E0C12571CA0028442B?OpenDocument. [Accessed 10 Feb 2016]. [4] IHS Engineering360, Flat belt pulleys, [Online]. Available: http://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/motion_controls/power_transmission/flat_belt_pulleys. [Accessed 15 February 2016]. [5] J. Darling, ME 10010 Solid mechanics 2 Belt Drive Labratory Exercise, University of Bath, 2016. [6] V. R. Chennu, Belt drives types, advantages, disadvantages, 31 October 2015. [Online]. Available: http://me-mechanicalengineering.com/belt-drives-types-advantages-disadvantages/. [Accessed 15 February 2016].