Friday, August 23, 2019

Read the case and answer the questions ( but focus more in the first Assignment

Read the case and answer the questions ( but focus more in the first question) - Assignment Example The difference in treatment of financial institutions during and in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis was but well order; for with large risks is the chance to succeed and/or fail, all of which the very institution must bear the most burden. 2. Many experts argue that when the government bails out a private financial institution it creates a problem called â€Å"moral hazard,† meaning that if the institution knows it will be saved, it actually has an incentive to take on more risk, not less. What do you think? No one individual among those in search of growth wishes to fail, and so are the institutions with humans at the helm. Equally true is the very fact that entities only reap rewards commensurate to the seeds sowed; anything else only happens in the charity world. With risk, however, comes responsibility; a case where an institution has â€Å"masked† bad assets and excessive liabilities outside the proximity of determinable levels is but incurable, and a lesson of some sort must be read across the system. It is public knowledge that by the time Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy with Federal Reserve, the financial crisis was well underway, and that bailing out the institution wasn’t a priority; the entire system was. To hit right at the tip, getting the right buttons at that particular moment was but hard to call, and that no one knew for sure that lending the Lehman Brothers a hand was that very right button on behalf of the entire system. If indeed its consequential failure had the weight alluded by a section of scholars in quashing off the crisis, then, it was a mistake on behalf of the government. The foregoing notwithstanding, the downward spiral with exorbitant losses on its books of account wasn’t anything to overlook. Both ways, the decision taken was a double-edged sword with no specified guarantees

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Case Study Analysis on Amazon.com Research Paper

Case Study Analysis on Amazon.com - Research Paper Example Despite him having a degree in computer science, he had a vision to build a network for international trade. In lights of this, Preston founded Amazon.com in 1994 as a website for international trading. Online Retailers and wholesalers as well as buyers and sellers met online globally. Amazon founders had a vision to become one of the world’s leading companies dealing with online trading. The management in Amazon.com sought to reduce negative environmental impacts as there was no physical contact between the traders. Amazon has operating earnings close to $52 million yearly. Amazon Company normally projects to make approximately $22 million to $2.2 billion within five years (World, 2007). Examining the business model they use, Amazon primarily switched to Linux as primary architecture. In addition, Amazon has lowered technology expenses by about 20%. However, the decision to lower technology expenses has not profited Amazon as projected. Company Strategies and Customer Acquisi tion Considering the pricing, the strategies have changed over time. Amazon has regulated the prices through several policies for example, introduction of frustration free packaging. This policy is an initiative that is designed to simply motivate the customers who purchase goods online at different times of the year. The customers feel motivated when they buy two products for the price of one. Another policy is the free packaging certification initiative for manufactures. Their products undergo free laboratory testing to acquire certification. As a result, the certifications on their products increase the value and enable sales at high prices. However, the pricing of products sold at Amazon.com tend to be high hence attracts the upper class society and several middle class persons. Amazon.com customers are mainly acquired through word of mouth through satisfied clients. More customers are venturing into online shopping due to the fact that it is environmental friendly and efficient . Most customers are parents who are purchasing gifts for their children and loved ones. Since Amazon began, it has existed under many models over the years hence adopting other models can work in its favor. However, this will affect the existing revenue steams. The major reason is the fact that obtaining new models will change the technology used. On one hand, when the technology costs increase, the main revenue stream will decline while on the other hand, when the costs of technology decrease, the revenue increases. Challenges and Opportunities facing Amazon.com Amazons major competitors are mainly online shopping websites. Some of them include LL Bean, Electronic trade & Onlineshoppers companies (Night, 2004). The advantage that Amazon has over its competitors is the reliability. Over the years, Amazon has existed selling their products to many customers. Shopping at Amazon has proved worthy over the many years of operation for online traders. One disadvantage is that a lot of co mpetition has risen and the level of technology improved. In considering how Amazon.com has changed the trading industry, there is the belief that innovation has the power to change the world. It has raised interests to trade online (Grant, 2004). The requirement to begin trading online is the desire to shop in a whole new zone. Amazon is always searching for new ways to improve its efficiency on behalf of its customers as well as individuals who shop on trading websites. There are merchants who sell on its

Free

Free Will Essay Essay Many people in the western world hold very dear the idea of independence, that they can think freely, choose freely, and express themselves freely. This all is connected to the idea of free will that many believe is what makes us human. Many people cannot, however, define free will. There is always the feeling that one can do whatever he/she wants. That is probably why this idea is such a pleasing concept. There is just one serious flaw in the free will concept. People cannot determine everything; there are some things, even before one is born, that determines who he will be in the future. Since people do not choose their parents, or the nationality of their family this creates a serious flaw in the free will concept. Now if people were able to choose these sorts of things they would be gods. It is not up to people to choose their skin colour, nationality etc. When one looks at this issue the concept of soft determinism is probably the safest solution to answer this problem. Since in this concept there are things determined for people, if one knows what he is doing, and the choice is not, in any way, forced by the circumstances the action that he is performing is free. (Roberts 2012) It means that even though one does not have full control over his life, meaning that one does not determine anything before he is born, people are still able to make conscious choices given that the circumstances allow it, fore example, like I am going to do this tonight, or I am visiting this person tomorrow, but these are simple choices, while there are others that you cant choose freely, like external forces have control over it than your own free will. On a smaller scale, who one person might become is really decided by the governments, society, and religions. Religions restrict the activities and freedom of those who follow it and live under its rules, just like in other countries, people are slaves to their political system. On a similar note and this is a very rare and cruel case, in countries ruled by dictators the rulers determine whether people live or not. Next comes the laws created by the governments, usually they restrict certain activities that people have to do. Also, governments make rules, regulations and legislation that determine what people will have to do. Lastly, societies impact the freedom and choices of the person who lives and interact within that society, because his choices are limited. There are many factors that would prove that free will doesn’t exist; religion is the most undecided one of them all. In the Bible particularly, many sources suggest that everybody that believes in God already has his faith determined. Various quotations, starting in the Old Testament, state that people already have their paths determined for them. In the letter to Ephesians St. Paul writes In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will (Ephesians 1:11, Jerusalem Bible). It clearly says that if one believes in God and Jesus Christ has his life determined. In another letter to Thessalonians Paul writes that from the beginning â€Å"Because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation† (2 Thessalonians 2:13). This clearly emphasizes the previous point that everyone who believes in God will has his life determined as one of the chosen people who will be saved by God. This is true for every religion, however it relates to salvation only, not man’s ability to choose his own path. In the very first book of the Old Testament one can interpret the fact that we are created in God’s image, therefore we posses God’s ability to be free (Genesis 1: 26, Jerusalem Bible). Staying with the Bible, in the book of Genesis, Adam and Eve, against God’s will ate the fruit of knowing good and evil. This in itself is a proof that humans can see what is right and wrong and therefore choose for themselves whether they want to be on one side or the other. â€Å"So then each one of us will give an account of himself to God† (Romans 14:12, Jerusalem Bible) tells people that everyone will have to, in his own heart and soul, give God the account of his own actions! On another note, the Qur’an is often wrongly interpreted as being based on determinism. This is false; if a life of a Muslim was determined for him/her at birth there would be no point in him/her trying to find out the nature of his sin, Allah would not have had to send prophets to teach his people the way, because all their actions would be already determined by them (Gorjian 2010). This suggests that, as far a religion goes people are free to do as they feel is right. This however does not justify the fact that governments take away this freedom from their citizens. Governments taking away freedom from their subjects can be traced back in history, and one the greatest examples for this would be the war of ideologies known as World War II. Political systems are based on ideas like fascism which helped Germans in their economic crisis, communism overthrew the Tzars in Russia which gave the proletariat all the influence they needed, while liberalism promised freedom. This all seems perfect, however, as it is all well known, there were flaws in each of those systems. Nazis under Hitler were only nice to a great portion of Germans as they were trying to create the master race. All others: Slavs, Roma, Jews were hated and discriminated against. In occupied Poland Nazis closed schools, denied access to education, confiscated automobiles, (Cosby 2010) houses, land and riches. The Only secondary education available was trade school which trained youth for a specific job denying them the opportunity to express themselves in different fields. They took away people’s freedom putting them in concentration camps and Ghettos; death camps like Auschwitz detained not necessarily Jews but also Poles, Czechs, Gypsies and even Germans (Biega 1996). For the sake of creating the master race they were determined to kill and enslave, even their own people which meant that one could not choose his affiliation freely, he was either with or against Hitler. In Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution aristocrats were condemned to death. In democratic, liberal countries the process of taking away free will is different. But sticking with the systems; theory of taking away human rights, one has to talk about people operating the machine of terror. Behind every tyranny there is a tyrant including Hitler and Stalin who are probably the most reviled dictators with a very bad reputation. Out of all the evildoers in the world, they were the most remembered for imposing their will on hundreds and thousands of people leaving a stain that makes saying their name in public an awkward thing. Their acts are known to all who knows the history of the 20th century. Their actions caused a lot of distress, killing and exploiting people, imprisoning innocents and denouncing everybody simple rights, no matter if he was a friends or foes. Nobody was allowed to publically speak their minds, people could be killed for any simple reason. Both of them used concentration and death camps where people would be stripped of their freedoms and their rights did not exist and their bodies were exploited for hard labour or experiments. In these countries dictators were the law. Now if one looks at a country like North Korea with Kim Il Sung, the previous leader of the nation, he denied people rights of information, freedom of press or freedom of speech. He ordered the whole nation to be brainwashed to believe he was god. Aside from being an attack on one’s free will it was an attack on one’s understanding of the world. When the supreme leader died, people fell into chaos as they did not know what will happen the next day, if there was a next day. Kim Il Sung took away not only their freedom, but also their whole world. These are things that would be unthinkable in a democratic society. In democratic states laws are a fundamental part of the society. People are afraid of anarchy more than they are scared to lose their rights even though these laws are just written statements of already known moral facts. It is logical that killing someone is immoral, stealing is wrong; all sorts of sexual act are cruel for the victim. Laws are supposed to protect people and make sure that others are shielded from the evildoers who break the law. There is a difference though between punishing someone for what he has done and changing the laws to suit someone’s personal goal. Looking at the terrorist attacks on September 11 2001. The aftermath of this horrible event sparked even more terrible actions taken by the lawmakers. The Patriot Act was something that unjustifiably took away peoples’ rights to act free not for something that they have done but rather something they might, maybe, probably be doing. The Patriot Act targeted many innocent people who were under suspicion of being terrorists not because they took part in terrorist training, but rather because they were of a certain skin colour or race. An initiative was put together by editorial cartoonists to present the very hurtful truth of how freedom was taken away through laws. Thus, for example Lalo Alcaraz created a cartoon that presents President Bush saying that liberty is secured while on another panel the Statue of Liberty is seen in prisoner outfit handcuffed and presented like detainees from Guantanamo Bay, commentary is unnecessary for this one. Another work by Clay Bennett demonstrates workers using materials from house labelled privacy to build a fence around this house which was labelled security. What the author was trying to present is the scandal with phone calls being listened to in order to prevent another attack while trying to listen for any terrorist activity (USA Patriot Art Show). The types of activities presented in the previous argument are shunned upon by many people because they invade their privacy and freedom. On the other hand laws and regulations with the word ‘freedom’ in them are very highly thought of by citizens since they are an assurance of their freedom and ability to express it. Laws, such as the freedom of speech, freedom of information, and freedom of religious expression or sexual expression, are important, they work as a manifestation of country’s liberty. How is it than that many of these laws, even though they say freedom, do not really give people the right to exercise these rights freely? That is because they contradict with many other rights granted by the government. And so one has the freedom of speech yet he cannot say racist things or anti-homosexual slurs as it violates the anti hate speech law. This is a very big and unsubordinated flaw on the part of the governments if they are able to pass two contradicting laws. If they do that hen freedom of speech is not so free anymore and takes away one’s ability to say whatever he wants, no matter how offensive or inappropriate it is. However, as much as we can see governments and religions as factors that manipulate or free will, society can be considered one of the biggest factors too. Society, the people we interact with, live by, and see everyday, those are the ones that constraint your choices and free will. Society even though it is not shown clearly, it still forces the individual to forget about making free choices that will deviate him/her from the norm. destructive attitudes such as racial prejudice, attitudes can lead our thoughts and actions. Social influences can affect human behaviour by changing our attitudes. So, actions like what i just mentioned affect our choices, and limits the options we have to choose from in life. Society can limit the ways you think, behave, choose, act, and develop, which makes it the perfect tool to completely strip away someones freedom without showing that its forcing this freedom to be taken away, basically, how society works is it makes us think we are free willed, but we are not free to choose what we want to do. There was enough said in this essay, maybe even too much. There were a lot of thoughts meant to be conveyed and views to be shared. There is only hope that one might understand the fact that governments don’t have to be evil fascist dictatorships or communist oppressors to control its citizens. Even though we may feel like we have complete control over our free will, there are external forces that impact the way we make our choices and the the paths we choose. Societies, religions, and governments are the major part of these external forces that manipulate our choices and our free will, so in the end, this idea of complete free will might be an illusion since humans are controlled by and external force whether it be government, religion or the society and individual lives in. â€Å"Because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation† (2 Thessalonians 2:13, New Revised Standard Version) In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will (Ephesians 1:11, Jerusalem Bible) In the very first book of the Old Testament one can interpret the fact that we are created in God’s image, therefore we posses God’s ability to be free (Genesis 1: 26, Jerusalem Bible) â€Å"So then each one of us will give an account of himself to God† (Romans 14:12, Jerusalem Bible).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Balance Of Payment And Exchange Rate In Egypt Economics Essay

Balance Of Payment And Exchange Rate In Egypt Economics Essay Is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Thereby, Egypt is a transcontinental country, and is considered to be a major power in North Africa, Mediterranean Region, African continent, Nile Basin, Islamic World and the Red Sea. Covering an area of about 1,010,000  square kilometers (390,000  sq  mi), Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the worlds most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains many ancient artifacts, such as the Karnack Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East. Part 1 Balance of payment and Exchange Rate in Egypt: Balance of payments transactions are usually tabulated under two broad categories, current account and capital account. Current account includes visible (merchandise) trade as well as invisible items, such as tourism, shipping, and profits and other moneys earned overseas. Here is the results of studying an annual report for balance of payment and exchange rate in Egypt : The Year Balance of Payment (BOP) Exchange Rate The Comment 2005 5.5 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =5.77 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.23 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate will be greater than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is in good situation and it was the best situation in the last 5 years 2006 2.7 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =4.34 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.99 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate less than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is decrease and it was the worst situation in the last 5 years. 2007 3.1 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =4.76 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$= 5.00 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate more than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is start increase again 2008 4.1 billion 1$ = Selling price:1$ =5.3 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$= 4.33 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate more than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is still increasing 2009 5.38 billion Selling price:1$ =5.5 Egyptian pound Purchasing price:1$=5.23 Egyptian pound Thats mean that the export rate will be greater than the import rate. So, the income of Egypt in this year is increased Part 2: Economic reform in Egypt In The Political Economy of Reform in Egypt: Understanding the Role of Institutions, Carnegie Middle East Centers Sufyan Alissa finds that economic reform, considered a priority by the Egyptian government, has not been fully effective for three reasons: it lacks public support, Egypt has failed to foster a competitive business environment, and the lack of dynamic and transparent institutions.   Alissa argues that Egypt lacks the institutional capacity to implement better-coordinated reform programs that address its socioeconomic realities, including widespread poverty and unemployment, high inflation, and a soaring public debt. Reform is needed to improve the efficiency of Egypts bureaucracy, increase the accountability and transparency of politicians, and widen political participation for Egyptian citizens. Key Findings: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Ã‚  Egypt has failed to create a healthy and competitive environment for business development. Despite the passage of many laws to organize the business environment, the government has not developed an effective enforcement process for these new laws, and little progress has been made in the fight against corruption. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Ã‚  Economic reform lacks popular support in Egypt as reforms are perceived to cause more harm than good as previous reforms have consistently failed to address socioeconomic problems. Furthermore, future reforms are predicted to increase the gap between the Egyptian rich and poor before the masses can feel the positive effects. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Ã‚  The majority of the private sector and civil society is excluded from the debate over Egypts economic reform strategy. Public participation is crucial for advancing civil society institutions and promoting an effective role in designing and implementing comprehensive economic reform. Given the nature of the Egyptian state and the main actors in the market and civil society, developing the necessary institutions and, most important, making them function properly within a short period of time seems unrealistic. Hence, Egypt should make the choice: Either start developing these institutions soon or lag behind. Building these institutions is the responsibility not only of the Egyptian state but also of the private sector and civil society, contends Alissa. Part 3: Monetary Policy in Egypt: Egypts Monetary Policy Objective: Law No. 88 of 2003 of the Central Bank, Banking Sector and Monetary System entrusts the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) with the formulation and implementation of monetary policy, with price stability being the primary and overriding objective. The CBE is committed to achieving, over the medium term, low rates of inflation which it believes are essential for maintaining confidence and for sustaining high rates of investment and economic growth. The Governments commitment to fiscal discipline is important to achieve this objective. Fiscal Policy in Egypt: Fiscal policy is the use of Egyptian government spending and taxation to influence the economy. When Egyptian government decides on the goods and services it purchases, the transfer payments it distributes, or the taxes it collects, it is engaging in fiscal policy. The primary Egyptian economic impact of any change in the government budget is felt by particular groups-a tax cut for families with children, for example, raises their disposable income. Discussions of fiscal policy, however, generally focus on the effect of changes in the government budget on the overall economy. Although changes in taxes or spending that are revenue neutral may be construed as fiscal policy-and may affect the aggregate level of output by changing the incentives that firms or individuals face-the term fiscal policy is usually used to describe the effect on the aggregate economy of the overall levels of spending and taxation, and more particularly, the gap between them. Conclusion: Egyptian economy is one of the most attractive economies in the world that is because it faced mane ups and downs, also the large number of population in Egypt affects the economy in a very observing way. Thats why the economics ministry in Egypt must take care for its behavior.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Basic Strategies Used To Respond To Uncertainty Management Essay

Basic Strategies Used To Respond To Uncertainty Management Essay Nestle is the worlds leading nutrition, health, wellness company. The headquarter of Nestle company is located in Vevey, Switzerland. That is in 1866, there was a first European condensed milk factory opened in Cham, Switzerland. The name of the company is Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company which established by brothers George Page and Chatles Page. After that year, the founder of Nestlà ©, Henri Nestle, a German pharmacist, developed a combination of cows milk, wheat flour and sugar, which name as Farine Lactee. The launched of Farine Lactee had become the largest competitor of Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. In 1905, Nestlà © merged with Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company after a couple of decades as fierce competitors to form the Nestlà © and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. In 1929, the chocolate company Peter, Cailler , Kohler Chocolats Suisses S.A. joined Nestlà ©. And in 1947, Nestlà © change its name to Nestlà © Alimentana S.A after merged with Maggi, a well-known manufacturer of seasonings and soups. In 1974, Nestlà © for the first time diversified outside the food industry and they become a major shareholder in LOreal, one of the worlds leading maker of cosmetic products. And then finally, the last name change that the company would endure was in 1977, where it adopted the name Nestlà © S.A. The first product that launched by Nestlà © is Farine Lactee Nestlà ©, a combination of cows milk, wheat flour and sugar. Farine Lactee was launched by Henri Nestle in 1867 and it was supported by the public. After that, Nestlà © also launched Milo in 1934. Milo is a chocolate and malt powder which is mixed with hot or cold water to produce a beverage and it is developed by Thomas Mayne in Sdyney, Australia. After the launched of Milo, another product launched by Nestlà © that famous among the world which is Nescafe. Nescafe is a powdered coffee that was introduced in Switzerland on April 1, 1938 after being developed for seven or eight years by Max Morgenthaler and Vernon Chapman. Another product that pull Nestlà © toward success is Nestlà © Pure Life, a bottled mineral water that launched in 1998. The smart strategy of Nestlà © had bring them toward the road of success. In 2012, Nestlà © has around 8,000 brands on the market included coffee, bottled water, milkshakes and other beverages, breakfast cereals, infant foods, performance and healthcare nutrition, seasonings, soups and sauces, frozen and refrigerated foods, and pet food. Organizational chart Planning and Strategic Management Basic strategies used to respond to uncertainty Nestlà © is a company that mainly act as a prospector while responding to uncertainty. Prospectors focus on developing new products or services and in seeking out new markets, rather than waiting for things to happen. Nestlà © had create many brands and many different types of products to satisfy consumers needs and wants. The table below showed the list of product of Nestlà ©. Types of Products Brand Baby foods Cerelac, Gerber, Gerber Graduates, NaturNes, Nestum Bottled water Nestlà © Pure Life, Perrier, Poland Spring, S.Pellegrino Cereals Chocapic, Cini Minis, Cookie Crisp, Estrelitas, Fitness, Nesquik Cereal Chocolate confectionery Aero, Butterfinger, Cailler, Crunch, Kit Kat, Orion, Smarties, Wonka Coffee Nescafà ©, Nescafà © 3 in 1, Nescafà © Cappuccino, Nescafà © Classic, Nescafà © Decaff, Nescafà © Dolce Gusto, Nescafà © Gold, Nespresso Culinary, chilled and frozen food Buitoni, Herta, Hot Pockets, Lean Cuisine, Maggi, Stouffers, Thomy Dairy Carnation, Coffee-Mate, La Laitià ¨re, Nido Drinks Juicy Juice, Milo, Nesquik, Nestea Food service Chef, Chef-Mate, Maggi, Milo, Minors, Nescafà ©, Nestea, Sjora, Lean Cuisine, Stouffers Healthcare nutrition Boost, Nutren Junior, Peptamen, Resource Ice cream Dreyers, Extrà ªme, Hà ¤agen-Dazs, Mà ¶venpick, Nestlà © Ice Cream Petcare Alpo, Bakers Complete, Beneful, Cat Chow, Chef Michaels Canine Creations, Dog Chow, Fancy Feast, Felix, Friskies, Gourmet, Purina, Purina ONE, Pro Plan Sports Nutrition PowerBar Weight management Jenny Craig In the effort of seeking out new markets, Nestlà © had employed around 330 000 people in over 150 countries and have 461 factories or operations in 83 countries. Nestlà © also becomes one of the sponsors in many events. For example, on 27 January 2012, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) announced that Nestlà © will be the main sponsor for the further development of IAAFs Kids Athletics Program for the consecutive of 5 years starting from January 2012. This is one of the biggest grassroots development programs in the world of sports. In the year 2012, Nestlà © expect that it will be a challenging year as they will face many uncertainties in the global economy and. However, as a prospector, the company had made specific plans to overcome the uncertainties. They believe that they have good fundamentals and will be able to diversify the global uncertainties. Nestlà © aim to continue the innovation and renovation of their products as long as launching further promotion of nutritional diets and healthy lifestyles Nestlà © will remain vigilant and will take all necessary method to soften any impact on their business due to the volatile commodity prices that were expected to continue in 2012. Besides that, Nestlà © Company can also be considering as an analyzer. Analyzers let other organizations take the risks of product development and marketing and then imitate or perhaps slightly improve on what seems to work best. For example, Nestlà © was Gail Bordens most successful imitators in the production of milk. Nestlà © imitate and make changes based on the condensed milk manufactured by Bordens first canned milk factory. Nestlà © invented a powdered milk food that primarily composed of cows milk and then mixed with water. By 1868, this product was being sold in Switzerland, Germany, France and England. After five year, the product was available throughout Europe. Eventually, Pet Milk and Carnation Milk were produced and sold in United States. In the 21th century, humans wants are unlimited. Therefore, Nestlà © create new brands on the products that already exist in the market and are needed for the consumers to widen their choice. Mission and Vision Nestlà ©s mission is to provide consumers with safe and convenient high quality food products so that people can live a better life. They are friendly, caring and efficient organization and they believe that research can help them make better food so that they can provide selections for all individual taste and lifestyle preferences. We should responsible we role, that means we need to responsive to the social, environmental, economic and cultural aspirations of people anytime, whilst ensuring our shareholders a reasonable return on their investment. Our staff can succeed job satisfaction, self-development and their reasonable targets because Nestlà © are seen as a perfect place of employment with good working conditions and benefits, with an internal environment. Nestlà ©s vision is to providing customers with high quality products and services with added value at competitive prices, simultaneously ensuring the long term viability and profitability of the organization. We have to continue to struggle to get the recognition and satisfy the trust our customers and business partners place in us. Our ambition As the leading Nutrition, Health and Wellness Company we enhance lives by offering tastier and healthier food and beverage choices at all stages of life and at any time of the day, helping consumers care for themselves and their families. This is the foundation of our promise of Good Food, Good Life and puts nutrition at the heart of everything we do.It is our firm belief that, for a company to be successful over time and create value for its shareholders, it must also create value for society. We call this Creating Shared Value. Built on strong foundations of compliance and sustainable business practices, this is our way to do business and to be the trusted leader in Nutrition, Health and Wellness. SWOT analysis Grand Strategy Grand strategy is a systematic, comprehensive, long-term plan of all the company use to achieve their goals. Market, product, and organization development is the main element of this strategy. There are three types of strategy such as Growth strategies, Stability Strategy and Defensive Strategy. Growth strategy involves the expansion of a company. Stability strategy is a strategy there are no-change strategy or little change strategy. Defensive strategy is a control to reduce the probability of loss. Nestlà © is a company that apply growth strategy. Nestlà © started the business in the year of 1866 with a first European condensed milk factory and today becomes the worlds biggest food producer. The product of Nestlà © such as Milk, Beverages, Coffee, Ice-cream, Confectionery Chocolate, Junior Food and other, has make a sales of CHF 44.1 billion in 2012 from 74,660 million at 1999. There net profit increase from 8% to 9.5billion Swiss francs ($10.35 billion) that show at9 August 2012. In 2003,Nestlà © got around 328,000 people that are Nestlà ©s staff in 70 countries and have many operations or factories in the world compare to the old figure of employee in 1998 299,800 people. Besides that, Nestlà © is increasing the size of their company year by year. One of the strategies is give different promotion on day. They give a discount for customer by using coupons. For example, Nestlà © Toll House Birthday Sugar Cookies can save 55$ if we print out the coupons to buy. In addition, Nestlà © also provide the samples food for customer in a promotion time, for instance, Maggi MeeGorengget the FREE Samples of the Delicious in 2nd  July 2012 to 2nd  August 2012. These was the successful strategy of Nestlà © in now a day. Nestlà © begin the business at 1866 with the combination of cows milk, wheat flour and sugar. After 1 year, infant cereal developed for a whole new world to babies. Next, the launch of Milo, Nescafe, Nestea, Nestlà © Pure Life, and Power Bar are launches at the years after 1929. Although these are many product launches, they merger with another company as an example Maggi and Ursina-Franck. Nestlà © did the high risky of investment in the follow year such as joint venture with LOreal, General Mills, Coca-Cola and Fonterra. In conclusion, Nestlà © was trying their best at the sales of product. It has a smart plan for the uncertainly. Growth strategy will give the increasing of cash, bank payment and other to the Nestlà © company and Nestlà © will improve in new product or new market in the future. Competitive Strategies Nestlà © mainly focused on differentiation strategy. Nestlà © is a quality focused company. They differentiate their products with their competitors by giving them better customer satisfaction and quality with in an acceptable price limit. All their market is based on quality products and customer satisfaction. The main factor that motivates a customer is to buy their goods is the nutritional content in their products. They also focused on creating a strong brand by creating brand equity. For have a better quality on their products, Nestlà © had created Nestlà © Nutrition, which is a global business organization designed to strengthen the focus on their core nutrition business. They believe that strengthening their leadership in this market is the key element of their corporate strategy. In order to reinforce their competitive advantage in this area, Nestlà © created Nestlà © Nutrition as an autonomous global business unit within the organization, and charged it with the operational and profit and loss responsibility for the claim-based business of Infant Nutrition, HealthCare Nutrition, and Performance Nutrition. This unit aims to deliver superior business performance by offering consumers trusted, science based nutrition products and services. In order to produce a better quality product, Nestlà © had made an effort on research and development. Research and development is a key of competitive advantage for Nestlà ©. Without research and development, Nestlà © could not have become the leader in food and beverage industries. With 29 research, development and technology facilities worldwide, Nestlà © has the largest research and development network of any food company. Based on the research and development done by Nestlà ©, they are able to produce many products that have a high quality in nutrition, wellness, taste, health, texture or convenience. Besides that, Nestlà © also use cost-leadership strategy for minor products. Nestlà © had used a new strategy called Nestlà ©s Popularly Positioned Products (PPPs) strategy that provide consumers with high-quality, nutritious products, regardless of where they sell them and the price point at which they sell them. PPPs focuses on the specific needs of 3 billion lower-income consumers worldwide. PPPs offer these consumers the opportunity to consume high-quality food products that provide nutritional value at an affordable cost and appropriate format. With a range of locally adapted distribution methods, including street markets, mobile street vendors and door to door distributors, PPPs are a source of income for street traders and individual distributors and contribute to the creation of local jobs. Recommendation Utilizing the identified strengths and opportunities Overcome the identified strengths and opportunities Conclusion Overall achievement Firstly, on 21 May 2012, Nestlà © was in the rank of No. 18 in The Gartner Supply Chain Top 25. The Gartner Supply Chain Top 25 is about leadership. Nestlà © has created a successful supply chain segment for its popular Nespresso line. Nestlà © is also highly advanced and integrated in its raw material sourcing strategies, and has invested significantly in supply development and innovation. Moreover, on 12 April 2012, Nestlà © becomes the first food and beverage company that receives A+ rating, which is the highest standard in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) for Creating Shared Value report. This shows that Nestlà © do take seriously their responsibility to create shared value and conduct their business in a sustainable way. Next, Nestlà © won the ACCA Malaysia Sustainability Reporting Award 2011. This was because Nestlà © use Sustainability Reporting to communicate to stakeholders regarding the progress of their Creating Shared Value strategy, which is to create value simultaneously for society and their shareholders while carrying out our business activities. On 19 May 2011, Nestlà © receives top environment award which is the 27th World Environment Center (WEC) Gold Medal award for its commitment to environmental sustainability. This shows that Nestlà © was recognized as a global company that has demonstrated an example of sustainability in business practice. Furthermore, on 7 June 2011, Nestlà © became winner of the Stockholm Industry Water Award for its leadership and performance to improve water management in its internal operations and throughout its supply chain. Nestle also has a leading role in the 2030 Water Resources Group. In July 2010, Nestlà © Malaysia was crowned as a winner of the Asia Responsible Entrepreneurship Awards 2010 (AREA). This awards show that Nestlà © was recognized as an organization that have shown a lot of efforts, perseverance and courage in corporate social responsibility initiatives. Besides that, a Global Food Industry Award was given to Nestlà © by The International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) .in 2010. Nestlà ©s dedication to food science and technology has been acknowledged by the IUFoST as long as Nestlà ©s efforts to advance global food science and technology for the benefit of everyone had been recognized by them. Last but not least, Nestlà © won the StarBiz-ICR Malaysia CR Awards in the year 2009. Nestlà © was one of the seven public-listed companies which were recognized and honoured for their outstanding Corporate Responsibility practices at the StarBiz-ICR Malaysia CR Awards 2009 presentation ceremony.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

Life was drastically changed during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a period of time where machinery was used for manufacturing massive production of goods that began in England in the middle 1700s. This revolution was significant because machinery now changed the way nations produced and distributed goods; therefore, it increased the availability and affordability of goods for all people. To understand the Industrialization Revolution, it is necessary to take a closer look at the Pre-Industrialization. During the Pre-Industrialization, most people belonged to either high or low-class not middle class, and many were farmers who lived in the countryside. Also, goods were made by hand thus the products were not readily affordable or available. However, agricultural revolution, population growth, natural resources, factors of production,inventions and transportation all contributed to the growth of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution resulted in positive and negative changes that paved the way for the working condition and wages, living condition and reform of social class. As a result of enclosure movement, many farmers moved into cities and became factory workers. During the agricultural revolution, wealthy landowners bought land that was formerly worked by village farmers and forced the farmers to give up farming and move into cities. These farmers faced many difficulties during their first year living in the city since jobs were hard to find. Factory owners hired them because they knew that they could pay low wages or reduce them if workers were late or their business was bad and fine or threaten to fire them if they were not paying attention to their work at all times (Doc A). This exam... ... included doctors, lawyers, workers, and merchants who arose as a result of industrialization. This example reinforces the idea that wealth could be earned during the industrialization. As the social class reformed the middle class also earned a comfortable living conditions while it would take a longer time for the working class to catch up. It is essential to recognize the problems that followed industrialization, but the long-term positive effects are more important because the revolution created massive production of goods, jobs for workers, and most importance is the reform of social class where workers’ lives gradually improved. The facts clearly shows that the reform of social class outweigh the low wages, harsh working and living conditions, short lifespan. The Industrial Revolution left the lasting impression of economic successes and social structure.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Genetic Engineering Essay -- Genetics Science Food Agriculture Essays

Genetic Engineering When we envision our future, we usually imagine a future free of disease and physical sickness, but have you ever wondered how a disease-free society will be accomplished? In the twenty-first century our world will be a very different place because of genetic manipulation and engineering. There are many pros and cons to this debate, but it is undeniable that the effects from the new revelations in the field of genetics are far-reaching and deep impacting. Genetic engineering is a radical new technology, one that breaks down fundamental barriers, not only between species, but also between humans, animals, and plants. By combining the genes of dissimilar and unrelated species, permanently altering their genetic codes, novel organisms are created that will pass the genetic changes onto their offspring through heredity. Scientists are now snipping, inserting, recombining, rearranging, editing, and programming genetic material. Animal genes and even human genes are being inserted into plants or animals creating unimagined transgenic life forms. For the first time in history, human beings are becoming the architects of life. Bio-engineers will be creating tens of thousands of novel organisms over the next few years. The prospect is frightening. First we must see that genetic engineering offers many potential benefits to the twenty-first century in the two fields of agriculture and medicine. In agriculture, we can now grow plants and animals faster, stronger, and easier. We can alter plants to have them grow ten times larger than their original size, and we can create animals without parents by cloning (Scott). In medicine, genetic engineering has revolutionized the field into something completely new. We now produce cures that are specifically tailored to diseases, which have lengthened the average life span by almost ten years, detect and eliminate birth defects in babies, and have people that are healthier now than at any time in history (Epstein). But with that almost unlimited power, there is a high price for the twenty-first century to pay. With each bonus we as a society receive from genetics, we also created genetically altered super-diseases. Genes from bacteria, viruses, and insects, which have never been part of the human diet, are being spliced into our food. Genetic engineering is not an exact science. Scientists can... .... They want to charge for products, and a high market share. I feel there are fundamental flaws with the genetic engineering approach, and am highly skeptical of those who would be driving its direction. I affirm our rights as individuals and as a community to make a choice about the direction we take, for if we do not have that, then why put up with all the messy aspects of having free will? So, as we approach the twenty-first century, we go into the realm of the unknown. However, it is assuredly a future that will be blessed and cursed with genetic engineering, and one that will look back at the nineteenth century and remember the development that influenced it the most as genetic engineering. Bibliography: Works Cited Epstein, Dr. Ron. "Why You Should Be Concerned About Genetically Engineered Food." 2 Nov. 1999. Hawaleshka, Danylo. "Unnatural Selection." Maclean's 20 Jan. 1997. 20 Oct. 1999. "Health, Environmental, and Ethical Concerns of Genetically Engineered Foods." 11 July 1999. 26 Oct. 1999. Scott, Mary. "Food Focus: Genetically Engineered Foods - Answers to Frequently Asked Questions." Natural Foods Merchandises Nov.1997. 26 Oct. 1999 .